Category Archives: Wildlife of the World

Demand For Fangs Puts Crosshairs on Jaguar Populations

Jaguar Poaching

A Feb. 23 article at Nature reveals a disturbing new trend in jaguar poaching in South America.

Between Aug. 2014 and Feb. 2015 numerous packages of jaguar fangs representing the lives of approximately 100 jaguars were confiscated by law enforcement officials.

Seven had been sent by Chinese citizens living in Bolivia. Eight more were reportedly intercepted in 2016, and a package of 120 fangs was seized in China, says Angela Núñez, a Bolivian biologist who is researching the trade.

The key word here is “China”.

International media attention has been focused on the demand for tiger parts in China for a variety of illicit uses. That has turned much of the focus into other countries for other big cat species.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Photo


While speaking with Dallas Safari Club Executive Director Corey Mason about the groups funding of anti-poaching patrols in Africa recently, he noted the shocking increase in poaching of several species including lions that his group has seen on the ground.

Much of that has to do with Chinese demand for lion parts as a replacement for tigers.

Now, jaguars are in the sights of poachers and this disturbing trend is not exactly hidden. In fact Chinese companies are advertising it according to Nature.

In northern Bolivia, where several Chinese companies are working, radio advertisements and flyers have offered US $120 to $150 per fang-more than a month’s income for many local people.

Obstacles to Conservation

This issue is particularly disturbing and could spread quickly causing major damage to jaguar populations throughout South and Central America.

Here is why…

*It’s Not Africa: Major wildlife conservation groups center much of their advertising, work and fundraising around Africa because the donating public is intrigued by anything that comes from that continent. There are less than 1/10 of wild Asiatic elephants in comparison to Africa elephants, yet why do we see almost nothing on elephant poaching and habitat loss in Asia? How many specials have you seen on the African elephant’s decline? Both are tragic but on the Asian front, the situation is much, much worse. Jaguars in South America will not have the media draw of rhinos and elephants in Africa. At some levels it’s all about the money. Sadly.

*Chinese Influence: China has gigantic financial interests throughout Latin America in the heart of the jaguar’s range. A Brooking’s Institute study notes that China-Latin America trade increased from $10 billion in 1990 to $270 billion in 2012. They are currently working on a 3,000 mile railway which will strengthen their influence in the region. Even the best-intentioned officials in countries where Chinese influence is high will have a hard time making inroads into the jaguar poaching issue when Chinese workers are buying and exporting them as has already been proven. Money always equals influence.

*Drug Trade Partnerships: The vast majority of cocaine produced in the world comes from the jaguar’s range. If demand gets high enough smuggling jaguar parts in tandem with drugs could make enforcement even more challenging putting cartel muscle behind protecting the trade.

Jaguars are the most powerful cats on the planet and among the big cats (the ones that can roar) their populations are the most stable. They are however declining in numerous countries and any increase in poaching will send the species spiraling toward serious endangerment.

The wildlife community needs to take notice of what is happening with jaguars and the trade in their fangs now or the species could be in a desperate situation in the coming decade.

The great cat of the Americas deserves much better than that.

Chester Moore, Jr.





Is This The Biggest Wild Boar Ever Captured on Video?

Feb. 11 this video started cycling around Facebook.

I normally do not share social media videos here but this one is deserving of commentary. While the details of this particular clip are sketchy there is no doubt this is an absolutely monstrous hog. The post was shared by a woman in Hong Kong and there is some sort of Asian script on the dumpsters.

This is not a domestic strain of hog.

It is a Eurasian boar and it is the largest one this author has ever seen on video.

A 2016 story at shows photos on alleged 1,179-pound boar killed in Russia. And while the photos there are impressive, the author admits there is no way to tell if they had been manipulated.

Video is harder to fake.

So, how big of a hog are we dealing with?

Judging by the dumpsters, the other hogs and various items in the photo I am going out on a limb and saying this hog is easily over 700 pounds.

Could it be in the 1,000-pound range?

In North America, feral hogs weighing more than 500 pounds are rare but they do exist. Various sources say in parts of Asia Eurasian boars can top 650 pounds.

To give scale for exactly how big a hog this size would be look at this illustration. In my opinion it is easy to see this hog would be bigger than the average grizzly here.



The biggest wild hog I have gathered evidence of in the U.S. was this one captured on a game camera by Richard Trahan in Tyler Co. TX


My estimates on size for this one judging from the size of that particular brand feeder which I investigated is 700 pounds.

“The bottom of the motor on this feeder is five feet, six inches from the ground,” Trahan said.

That hog is touching it standing flat-footed.

The one in this video is at least that big and likely much bigger.

The question is this a pen-raised Eurasian boar? If so, that would make a difference in terms of its rarity. A 650-pounder in the wild could easily get to 800 plus being overfed in captivity.

Most records of wild hog sizes come from hunters and there is very little hunting besides for food in many countries in the Eurasian boar’s native range. The only people worried about how big boars get are hunters who want bragging rights.

Most locals could care less.

Stories of true monster hogs have circulated for years and have always been a source of intrigue for me. I have encountered two 500 pound plug hogs in my home state of Texas and found tracks of one that was likely bigger.

We can debate the size of this beast and many likely will as it makes its rounds on social media.

One thing however is for sure.

Encountering such a beast would be an unforgettable experience and hopefully I would see it before it saw me.

Chester Moore, Jr.

Siberian Tiger Babies Observed-Species Needs PR Overhaul

There is no animal more stunning than an Amur (Siberian) tiger.

Weighing up 600 pounds and measuring as long as 12 feet from nose to tip of tail, their size almost overrides the beauty of a striking pattern and piercing eyes.

According to an article at Russian scientists using trail cameras have captured images of three and a half month old cubs showing there is hope for this highly endangered species.

Watch the video above to see the incredible images.

According to officials with the World Wildlife Fund there are around 500 of these majestic cats left in the wild and that is up from the nearly extinct level of the 1940s.

By the 1940s, hunting had driven the Amur tiger to the brink of extinction—with no more than 40 individuals remaining in the wild. The subspecies was saved when Russia became the first country in the world to grant the tiger full protection.

I will never forget standing next to a Siberian tiger for the first time. When I first worked with captive cats at a sanctuary during my college days, I was absolutely blown away with the size of these animals.

I was shocked that their size and rarity was not a key point in virtually any conservation programs I had heard of at the time.

They are after all the world’s largest cat, weighing up to 200 pounds more than Africa’s largest lion.

Yet, few in the mainstream know anything about them. In fact, during the dozens of lectures I have conducted on the world’s great cats, I have come to believe most people outside of the hardcore wildlife lovers believe the white tigers they see in zoos are Siberian tigers.

Those are of course white Bengal tigers and the white color has nothing to do with living in snow. That is however the correlation people often make.

White tigers are not Amur (Siberian tigers). They are in fact Bengal tigers. (Public Domain Photo)

Education is a vital key to conservation because it makes people aware of problems with wildlife and its habitat. The Siberian tiger definitely needs an overhaul in that department.

Who wouldn’t want to help the world’s largest cat survive? What great opportunity lies ahead if someone is willing to make a concerted effort to let the world know about this great cat that survives in one of the harshest environments in the world?

When I saw the images of the gorgeous cubs in the video above, I could not help but feel a warm sense of hope.

If we let the world know what is happening with tigers in the Russian Far East then we might just have a crack at long-term survival for the world’s largest cat which was almost wiped out of existence 80 years ago.

With all of the doom and gloom constantly being bantered about in the wildlife community that is something to celebrate.

(To subscribe to The Wildlife Journalist blog enter your email at the top right of this page.)

Chester Moore, Jr.


Snow leopard de-listing. What’s the real story?

Recently I received news that one of the most mysterious and beautiful creatures on the planet was being taken off the endangered species list.

I am talking about the snow leopard.

Listing and delisting a species can come with a lot of confusion as subjects like this one deal with everything from extremely difficult population analysis to its interpretation.

Public Domain Photo

In this special case I turned to someone I trust and respect my friend from the other side of the world Dr. Natalie Schmitt who as you will see is doing some great work that will benefit snow leopards and other wild felines.

Here is the transcript of the questions I sent her and as always she answered with great detail and honesty.

Chester Moore, Jr.

 Do you feel the delisting of the snow leopard is justified?

I think the decision by the (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) IUCN assessment team to downgrade the snow leopard’s conservation status from ‘endangered’ to ‘vulnerable’ is justified as the species needed to meet very specific criteria to maintain that status.

A continuation of the ‘endangered’ classification for the snow leopard would have required two criteria to be met, 1.) a population consisting of less than 2,500 adults, and 2.) a rate of decline exceeding 20 percent over 16 years. The expert assessor team (consisting of five respected international experts), using the best information available, determined that the snow leopard currently meets neither criteria.

Dr. Natalie Schmitt

Although recent studies suggest that snow leopard numbers are likely higher than previously thought, the assessment team took an exceptionally precautionary approach, including using the lowest widely accepted global population size (4,000) when determining if the ‘endangered’ threshold could be met.

Although we still have only very crude estimates of snow leopard abundance based on sightings, camera trap recordings and interviews with local people, more accurate estimates are likely to not have any impact on the conservation status according to the expert team. However, my personal concern is that the decision has been made prematurely before broader-scale surveys are conducted with more accurate counting methods, to know for certain. In fact, in the full report on the snow leopard, the IUCN noted that population numbers could be partly speculative, given the difficulties in collecting accurate data on the elusive species across its full range from Afghanistan through to China.

What has been the main contributing factor to an increase in population?

Conservation efforts have been pinnacle in helping to prevent snow leopard extinction, particularly efforts to stop poaching and cutting off illegal trafficking routes however, as far as we are aware, the population is still decreasing, just not as rapidly as we once thought.

What are some negatives that could come from de-listing the snow leopard?

The biggest concern about the recent downlisting is that the lower status may weaken conservation efforts in range countries and the ability of local governments to stop the major threats to their survival. Some funding sources are also restricted to Endangered or Critically Endangered species, so there may be less funding opportunities for the species.

Tell us about your invention for tracking species like the snow leopard?

This invention has become the biggest life sacrifice for me, because I believe in its value so much! With the help of biomedical experts from McMaster University, the Centre for Molecular Dynamics in Nepal and Panthera, we aim to develop a simple, inexpensive, accurate, sensitive and portable DNA detection kit that can be used by non-experts for the rapid detection of species from the evidence they leave behind.

Through the identification of animals from their droppings we can gain an accurate estimate of population abundance, and the kit will be particularly useful for the detection of rare and elusive species where scats are difficult to identify morphologically. The portability and affordability of the kit will also make it easier for detecting species inhabiting challenging terrain, and in developing countries where conservation funding is limited. Once identified, those samples can then be taken back to the lab for further analysis of diet and disease.

The kit can also be used by customs officers to rapidly identify the remains of illegally trafficked species such as skins and bone. It is the lack of ability to be able to distinguish between legal and illegal wildlife products that represents the biggest issue in the enforcement and prosecution of wildlife trafficking. By improving our frontline detection methods we can identify poaching hotspots and trafficking routes, determine the geographic origin and age of the product, as well as assist law enforcement officers to prevent future crimes.

Finally, the simple design will allow the detection kit to be used by non-experts such as local communities and for citizen science initiatives. The usability of the kit will help local people to be directly involved in identifying and mitigating threats to wildlife, thereby expanding conservation outcomes.

We’ve already made significant headway and with the support of people and organisations who believe in the value of this idea too, we’ll get there.

To subscribe to regular updates on the project and to make a donation, please visit

What are the greatest challenges for the species moving forward?

Despite the IUCN downlisting of the species, snow leopards are still considered at high risk of extinction from habitat loss and degradation from mining and infrastructure development, declines in prey populations and poaching for the illegal wildlife trade. It is so important that we don’t become complacent in our efforts to preserve this important apex predator.

The snow leopard plays a crucial part in maintaining the health of the Himalayan ecosystem.

High school sisters want to #Save the Vaquita porpoise

Rachel Rose loves dolphins and porpoises.

As long as she can remember they have been her very favorite animals and she has encountered them both in the wild and at marine parks.

Her twin sister Abby loves marine mammals too but her favorite pastime is photography.

Together these two Texas ninth graders want to do something to save the vaquita.

The “what” you ask?

The vaquita is a type of porpoise, the world’s smallest in fact and also the single most endangered marine mammal. There are only 30 estimated left on the planet.

Living in the upper reaches of the Gulf of California (Sea of Cortez), these small, strikingly-marked cetaceans are the very definition of critically endangered.

save vaquita abby rachel
The girls are sporting the #savethevaquita shirts with the hashtag program on front and Dr. Guy Harvey’s artwork on back. Harvey has partnered with Sea World to raise funds for Vaquita CPR an international effort to save the species by creating a “Save the Vaquita” line of items that will be sold at Sea World Parks and through Dr. Harvey’s properties in which 15 percent of proceeds go directly to conservation efforts. They are holding the vaquita print also available for sale.

“It’s so sad that that such a beautiful creature could go extinct. It’s time we do something about it. We support what Dr. Guy Harvey and Sea World are doing with #savethevaquita,” Rachel said.

The girls have grown up working with our Kingdom Zoo outreach and had an encounter with a wild pink albino dolphin on one of our expeditions in 2013.

“I loved dolphins before but I really loved them after that and it made me appreciate marine mammals. We want others to appreciate them and contribute to saving the most endangered species of all-the vaquita,” Rachel said.

They will be helping with two events to help raise funds for vaquitas, a food fundraiser called “Fajitas for Vaquitas” which will take place at the Kingdom Zoo: Wildlife Center in Pinehurst, TX (Orange area) Sat. July 29 and Kingdom Zoo will be auctioning off prints of some of Abby’s wildlife photography.

“I love shooting photos of animals and I am excited that some of my photos can help raise money for the vaquita. They are one of God’s special creations and we are so excited to help them in any way. We have our #savethevaquita shirts and are inspired by Dr. Harvey’s amazing artwork,” Abby said.

The girls know saving the vaquita is a big task but that great things happen when people come together in the name of wildlife conservation.

“We can all do something,” Rachel said.


Chester Moore, Jr.


Saving the Vaquita


That is the number of days in an average month.

There are 30 teams in the NBA.

And there are 30 tracks on The Beatle’s The White Album.

It is also how many vaquitas scientists believe exist on the planet.

The vaquita is a type of porpoise, the world’s smallest in fact and also the single most endangered marine mammal.

vaquita image 2
© Thomas A. Jefferson/VIVA Vaquita

Living only in the upper reaches of the Gulf of California (Sea of Cortez), these small, strikingly-marked cetaceans are the very definition of critically endangered.

A gill net fishery that is now heavily centered on another endangered species-the totoaba (fish), vaquitas often end up tangled in the nets and either killed or left to die.

“The issue facing the vaquita is emblematic of larger impacts that humans are having on our oceans,” said world renown marine artist and conservationist Dr. Guy Harvey.

“From unsustainable fishing practices to marine pollution to changing ocean chemistry, human behavior is negatively affecting ocean health. As the human population continues to increase, we will depend on our oceans even more and need to ensure that we are using these resources in a sustainable manner to benefit future generations.”

Harvey has partnered with Sea World to raise funds for Vaquita CPR an international effort to save the species by creating a “Save the Vaquita” line of items that will be sold at Sea World Parks and through Dr. Harvey’s properties in which 15 percent of proceeds go directly to conservation efforts.

“I was proud to paint my first ever vaquita porpoise in support of SeaWorld and VaquitaCPR’s efforts to save this species that is on the brink of extinction,” Harvey said.

In addition Sea World has donated an additional $120,000 to the project.

“The plight of the vaquita porpoise illustrates the devastation the illegal wildlife trade can inflict on a species,” said Dr. Chris Dold, SeaWorld’s Chief Zoological Officer.

“We are proud to partner with Guy Harvey to help educate people about this crisis and raise money toward a solution. The Vaquita CPR effort is an extraordinary, last ditch attempt to prevent the extinction of a porpoise species that is only found right here in North America. We at SeaWorld care deeply about the ocean, and we care especially about the animals that live there. We can not sit idly by as another animal goes extinct.”

vaquita image 1
© Thomas A. Jefferson/VIVA Vaquita

According to Vaquita CPR which is spearheaded by the National Marine Mammal Foundation the Mexican government has determined that emergency action is needed to temporarily remove some of the remaining animals from their threatening environment and create a safe haven for them in the northern Gulf of California.

An emergency conservation plan has been developed by an international team of experts, with field recovery operations set to begin in May 2017. Catching and caring for vaquitas may prove impossible, but unless we try, the species will likely vanish.

A project like this might indeed seem impossible. After all, is there any hope for a species that only has 30 representatives?

In 1987 there were only 22 California condors. Now there are more than 400.

The black-footed ferret was thought extinct in the early 1980s and then a population of a few dozen was found. Now, thanks to captive breeding and active monitoring efforts there are around 1,200 in the wild.

Yes, the fact vaquitas are ocean dwellers complicates things but there is still hope. The common denominator for all endangered species success stories is people taking action.

And that is what a coalition of people are doing right now.

Let’s do what we can to help the vaquita by supporting those who are supporting efforts to save this beautiful, severely endangered marine mammal.

Chester Moore, Jr.

Wild boars kill ISIS fighters! For real

A stampede of wild boars killed three Isis Jihadi fighters in Iraq recently.

According to the Times of London the large group of boars were living in the dense reeds in the al-Rashad region on the edge of agricultural fields. In other words prime hog habitat.

“It is likely their movement disturbed a herd of wild pigs, which inhabit the area as well as the nearby cornfields,” Sheikh Anwar al-Assi, a chief of the local Ubaid tribe and supervisor of anti-ISIS forces, told the Times of London.

Details of the attack are sketchy but what we do know is that boars in some form or fashion killed Isis fighters.

may hog 3

It might seem strange for there to be wild boars in Iraq as the Western idea of the Middle East is large tracts of sand with no life. The fact is there are arid forests and even pristine wetlands in the war-torn country. The Eurasian boar is one of the numerous native mammals and there are animals in the country that we would call “feral hogs” that are a mixture among domestic breeds and Sus scrofa the Eurasian boar.

The native hogs are likely the subspecies Sus scrofa attila that taxonomists believe extend from Hungray all the way into the Mesopotamian Delta in Iraq and possibly Turkey and Iran as well.

Although this is the first time we know of hogs being involved in the war on terror, over the years I have documented numerous cases of hogs attacking people.

The Pineville Town Talk tells the story of a Pineville, La. man who had a pig enter the house he was visiting.

“Boston Kyles, 20, of 497 Pelican Drive told deputies he was visiting his sister’s house at the time of the incident. He said he had gone there to clean fish and was sitting in the house’s front room when the pig entered through the front door. Kyles told deputies he stomped the floor to try to shoo the pig out of the room, but the pig charged him, Maj. Herman Walters said.”

“Walters had heard of pigs attacking people in the woods but said this was the first time he had heard of a pig going into a house and attacking someone.”

An Edgefield, South Carolina man experienced one of the scariest hog attacks I could find occurring in the United States.

The Edgefield Advertiser reported, “A man was hospitalized recently after being attacked by a wild hog at his home on Gaston Road. The hog, which eyewitnesses estimated to weigh upwards of 700 pounds, materialized in Fab Burt’s backyard while he was working in his garden.”

“It came out of nowhere and attacked me. It had me pinned on the ground and was mauling me.”

Fortunately, Burt’s seven-month-old German shepherd, named Bobo, was on hand to help him fend off the hog.

It looks like the Isis terrorists did not have any “Bobo” to save them. In a strange case from what is a brutal, ugly war, nature struck back-with a vengeance.

If you would like to subscribe to this blog to keep up with these kinds of stories enter your email address in the form to the top right of this page.

Chester Moore, Jr.

Jaguars in America: 5 Things No One Reports

Jaguars captured on game cameras in New Mexico and Arizona have captured a fair amount of media attention over the last decade.

A majestic species generally affiliated with the Amazon, jaguars are highly adaptable cats that fare just as well in desert mountain regions as they do as they do in dense rainforest.

The idea of jaguars crossing into the American Southwest seems odd for those with little understanding of the species which brings us to the first of five points never mentioned in media coverage.

    Jaguar Range: The historical range of jaguars goes all the way into western Louisiana and bleeds over into California to the West. As you can see looking at this map by cat research specialists Panthera (not to be confused with defunct metal band Pantera), that range has decreased dramatically.

jaguar range

    Rivers No Barrier: The jaguar is a water-loving cat and is arguably more comfortable in the water than even the tiger which has been portrayed as the world’s top water-loving large cat. Jaguars have been encountered swimming large stretches of the Amazon River and are regularly documented feeding on caimans (a type of crocodilian) in the water with a bite to skull nonetheless!
    Jaguars are “Black Panthers”: The term “black panther” is thrown around indiscriminately and in my 25 years as a wildlife journalist I have found most Americans relate it to black cougars. The problem is black cougars most likely do not exist or at least have not been proven to exist. There is however an American cat that produces black offspring and that is the jaguar. The condition is called “melanism” and it is not uncommon in jaguars. The large black cats seen in zoos, on television programs, etc. are other melanistic jaguars or leopards which can also have melanistic offspring.
    Size Matters: Jaguars are the world’s third largest cat behind the tiger and lion. Their size varies greatly throughout their range with the largest specimens living in parts of Brazil averaging 220 pounds. The largest on record was a male that weighed 326 pounds with an empty stomach. That is about the size of an average Bengal tiger.
    Texas Sightings: Over the last decade I have gathered several alleged jaguar sightings from Texas along the Rio Grande River region and into the Trans-Pecos. These sightings are under investigation but unlike New Mexico and Arizona there are no official trail camera programs attempting to study any possible movements into Texas. The Trans-Pecos is a huge area and is vastly uninhabited so it is possible there are jaguars touching Texas soil no one has seen.
    In terms of anecdotal evidence, I have two specific reports that after interviewing eyewitnesses lead me to believe they were most likely telling the truth.
    We will be doing numerous articles on jaguars this year and always appreciate reader feedback.
    For now check out this great clip from the World Wildlife Fund of a melanistic jaguar crossing the Amazon.

Chester Moore, Jr


Rhinos in Texas

It is the most valuable wildlife commodity in the world.

Fetching up to $60,000 a pound on the black market, the rhinoceros horn is coveted greatly by millionaires in Asia who use it as a status symbol or grind into traditional elixirs as a aphrodisiac or folk cures for various ailments.

By comparison ivory from poached elephant tusks are going for about $1,500 a pound. That’s chump change compared to rhino horn.

Large-scale poaching of the now critically endangered black rhino resulted in a dramatic 96 decline from 70,000 individuals in 1970 to just 2,410 in 1995 according to Save the Rhino, a strictly rhinoceros-based conservation organization.

rhino may 1

“Thanks to the persistent efforts of conservation programs across Africa, black rhino numbers have risen since then to a current population of between 5,042 and 5,458 individuals.”

“The overwhelming rhino conservation success story is that of the Southern white rhino. With numbers as low as 50-100 left in the wild in the early 1900s, this sub-species of rhino has now increased to between 19,666 and 21,085.”

But poaching has increased dramatically.

In 2007 there were 13 rhinos poached in South Africa. That number skyrocketed to 83 the next year and by 2015 there were 1,175 rhinos poached. That means one out of every five rhinos was killed drive by the aforementioned Asian market.

There is no end in site to the killing. Despite the use of surveillance drones, shoot to kill policies on poachers in some area and increase awareness, poachers are hitting rhinos and they are hitting them hard.

Some believe the solution to saving the species involves bringing them to Texas.

Hundreds of orphaned baby rhinos could be moved into Texas where they could be kept far away from poachers on highly managed private ranches. The thought process is the gene pool could be preserved while conservationists figure out what to do with the problems in Africa.

I will have a full feature article on this project in the May edition of Texas Fish & Game. I am very excited about the project and the article. In fact, I was so excited I had to tease it a little bit here.

This rhino project has many challenges and we will be covering it in-depth fashion not only in that article but also here.

Chester Moore, Jr. 





It must be the Texan in me.

I love cattle especially wild ones. There is something powerful and majestic about the bulls in particular.

Numerous species exist around the world but my favorite is the banteng of Southeast Asia.

Public Domain Photo
Public Domain Photo

I first learned of these while in college doing some studies on Australia’s wildlife. Banteng were introduced there in the 1830s and there are about 10,000 of them dwelling Garig Gunak Barlu National Park.

That is actually the largest population of wild banteng found anywhere. In their native Southeast Asia their numbers have dwindled.

There is a domesticated strain of banteng idenfited as “Bali cattle” and there has been some introducing them into the gene pool to help bring some diversity.

A study entitled Rapid development of cleaning behavior by Torresian crows on non-native banteng in Northern Australia (That’s a mouthful, huh?) shows some positives of their introduction

In this paper we report the observation of a rapidly developed vertebrate symbiosis involving ectoparasite cleaning by a native corvid of northern Australia, the Torresian crow, on a recently introduced bovid ungulate, the banteng. On three separate dates we observed a total of four crow individuals eliciting facilitation behaviours by a total of ten female banteng to assist in the removal of ectoparasites.

Most exotic introductions are considered a negative although in reality people would be shocked with which animals in their country are actually native. This one is at least proving interesting scientifically and benefiting a native species.

One of the animals we plan on acquiring for the next phase of the Kingdom Zoo: Wildlife Center is a banteng . If anyone has any contacts here in the states please contact us.

And don’t worry. As much as I like beef, banteng will not be what’s for dinner.

Chester Moore, Jr.